I"ve just installed Ubuntu recently, and also according to suggestions online, I developed my home brochure much bigger than the source directory. However, I found that the system instantly installs software in the source directory, which takes increase a most space, and my home brochure is virtually empty.

I"m a bit confused why it is actually produced larger. Must software be mounted in the home directory instead? and also where should I put the folders of prebuilt binaries download from other sources?


Before directly answering her question, it"s crucial to be clean on the distinction between a directory and also a partition. A single partition can hold multiple directories. In Linux, partitions that organize filesystems room normally mounted (made accessible) making use of a catalog as a mount point. Thus, /home can be merely a directory on the source (/) partition or /home could be the mount allude for a different partition. Her question supplies the word "directory" in a context that makes it clear you supposed "partition." I"m clarifying this difference because this difference is crucial to part of the price to your question. In fact, there"s yet an additional complication, because logical volume manager (LVM) enables a partition to organize multiple filesystems that are an installed at different places. For the below, though, I"ll assume you"re not utilizing LVM, so that "partition" and also "filesystem" can be thought about synonymous (except for the swap partition).

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The optimum size of various partitions counts on what you mean to install to them. Because that instance, with different root (/), /home, and also swap partitions, but no various other (Ubuntu) partitions:

If you install a lot of software, you"ll want a bigger root (/) than if you install tiny software. Also so, the requirements of software application packages rarely exceed about 30 GB.Some non-software walk in source (/). This category includes log in files, databases (which typically go in /var), content for web servers, and also the system-wide temporary directory (/tmp). If friend have large needs for any type of of these things, you may need one of two people a bigger root (/) partition or to separation off the place of these big directories come their very own partitions. You might split off /var, or a subdirectory the it, come its very own partition if you suppose to be storing vast files there, as can be true ~ above some varieties of network servers. Together non-software needs on source (/) are frequently modest for desktop systems, yet they deserve to be far-ranging for network servers.For a typical desktop computer, the an are consumed on source (/) won"t walk up very much end time, because an individual files don"t go there -- just program binaries, log documents (which acquire rotated out and deleted in time), and also other mechanism files. Root (/) consumption goes increase mainly since you install brand-new software. If you install a program and then uncover you"re not using it, uninstalling it deserve to be worthwhile, particularly if root (/) is pour it until it is full up.The /home directory is whereby the vast bulk of user documents reside. (Some temporary documents go in /tmp and also there room some other exceptions, though, at least one of which is really important -- check out the following bullet point.) On an Ubuntu-only installation, this means that your personal photos, MP3 files, videos, word processing documents, internet browsing cache, etc., every reside in /home. Thus, the room demands top top /home often tend to walk up in time as you use the computer -- girlfriend copy picture from your digital camera here, include music here, conserve word processing records here, and so on.One complication is that numerous Ubuntu installations are to computers that dual-boot with Windows. On this systems, most user data papers reside top top the home windows C: partition, no in the Ubuntu /home partition. If you continue with this pattern, the /home partition will host relatively couple of files and also so should most likely be smaller than the source (/) partition; or it might be got rid of entirely, leaving the /home catalog on the source (/) partition.

Thus, if Ubuntu is your just OS, and also if you"re installing on a contemporary hard decaying or even SSD (200GB or more, and often in overfill of 1TB), opportunities are /home should be lot bigger than root (/).

OTOH, if her disk is unusually tiny by contemporary standards or if you"re dual-booting through Windows and you desire to keep most of your records (especially big ones) accessible to both OSes, it"s probably best to one of two people omit a separate /home partition (leaving its documents in the source partition together a simple /home directory) or keep a fairly small /home partition -- perhaps also smaller 보다 root (/).

One additional variant is precious mentioning: In a dual-boot configuration, professionals often prefer setup aside one or much more separate partitions come hold records shared in between the OSes. That is, you"ll have actually the Ubuntu root (/) and perhaps /home partitions, the home windows C: partition to hold Windows and also its routine files, and another partition (perhaps D: in Windows and also /home/yourusername/shared in Ubuntu) to host shared files. The benefit of this is that you have the right to restrict access to the home windows C: partition indigenous Linux, do it much less likely the a pest or user error will trash the windows installation. You"ll likewise be maybe to do a complete re-install of windows without wiping the shared-data partition. You have the right to use any type of filesystem you like on the shared-data partition, so lengthy as both OSes recognize it. NTFS is the most common choice for this, but you can use FAT if girlfriend don"t mind its limitations; and also some Linux filesystems have Windows drivers, therefore you can use one of them if friend prefer.

With those generalities the end of the way, it"s helpful to consider some genuine sizes:

root (/) -- Ubuntu can install to a source (/) partition as tiny as about 5 GB, IIRC; however, if you begin installing big programs, that can quickly climb to two or three times that value. Thus, the normal recommended variety is something favor 10-30 GB, v the caveat the it have the right to go even greater than that for some users -- however for the majority of "normal" users, even 20 GB is probably adequate if you have a different /home partition.swap -- i haven"t pointed out swap much, however will for this question of sizing. In the old work (~15 year ago), the basic recommendation to be to do swap an are about double your lamb size. This particular day that"s generally overkill. If you use suspend-to-disk (which is not configured in Ubuntu by default), swap room should it is in at least as big as your obtainable RAM. If friend don"t usage this feature, it deserve to be smaller sized than that, however having some swap space is desirable, since it allows the kernel come optimize RAM use to improve performance. Note also that swap room can it is in a record on a filesystem quite than (or in addition to) a swap partition. (IIRC, suspend-to-disk calls for a swap partition, though.) Overall, in most situations I"d say half your RAM size is probably a decent size for a swap partition./home -- together a first approximation, when you"ve determined how much space you need for root (/) and also swap, you must give every little thing else come /home. The exception would be if there"s very tiny space left. For instance, if you"re dual-booting with Windows and want to give Linux simply 30 GB, then you"ll have next to nothing left over by the time you allocate, say, 20 GB to root (/) and 4 GB come swap. Something comparable would take place if you"re installation on a tiny tablet or very old computer with a little disk. In this case, girlfriend might too omit /home.

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Other partitions -- In some cases, you can want other partitions because that /var, /tmp, and also so on. These aren"t necessary for typical desktop computer configurations, though. Smallish (~500 MB) /boot and/or /boot/efi partitions are occasionally required, also -- however if friend don"t currently have these and also your device is booting, don"t worry about them. As provided earlier, you can want a shared-data partition because that use with Windows. If girlfriend want most of her data to be common in this way, you can omit /home and also allocate the space to a shared-data partition. (You should not mountain an NTFS or FAT volume at /home since Ubuntu relies on functions not detailed by these filesystems for some documents in your residence directory. You can mount a shared-data partition in a subdirectory of your home directory, though. If you use Windows filesystem chauffeurs for Linux filesystems, girlfriend could likewise give Windows access to her Ubuntu /home partition.)

In the end, developing an optimized partitioning system depends on an intimate understanding of your very own needs, obtainable disk space, and also what"s currently been provided (by an additional OS, because that instance). If friend stick v Ubuntu, you"ll eventually figure this out for yourself; but there is no one-size-fits-all solution, so ns can"t simply offer you a set of numbers. Even generalities favor whether /home must be enlarge or smaller sized than root (/) vary from one installation to another -- although if /home is smaller sized than root (/) once you monitor my rundown above, there"s a good chance (but not a certainty) the omitting /home and also increasing the dimension of source (/) by the amount would certainly be best.