what they’re saying about “they to speak / ns say”
“The finest book that’s occurred to teaching composition—ever!” —Karen Gaffney, Raritan Valley neighborhood College
“A brilliant book. . . . It’s choose a membership map in the aca-demic club.” —Eileen Seifert, DePaul University
“This book demystifies rhetorical moves, tricks of the trade that many students space unsure about. It’s reasonable, helpful, nicely composed . . . And hey, it’s true. I would certainly have discovered it immensely beneficial myself in high school and also college.”
—Mike Rose, university of California, Los Angeles
“The dispute of this publication is important—that there space ‘moves’ to academic writing . . . And that understanding of them have the right to be generative. The template layout is a good way to teach and demystify the moves the matter. I favor this publication a lot.”
—David Bartholomae, university of Pittsburgh
“Students need to walk a good line between their work and that the others, and also this publication helps them walk that line, providing specific methods and also techniques because that introducing, explaining, and integrating various other voices with their own ideas.”
—Libby Miles, college of Rhode Island
“A beautifully lucid means to technique argument—different from any rhetoric I’ve ever seen.”
—Anne-Marie Thomas, Austin ar College, Riverside
“It offers students the recipe we, as scholastic writers, all bring in our heads.” —Karen Gardiner, college of Alabama
“Many student say that it is the an initial book they’ve uncovered that in reality helps them with writing in every disciplines.”
—Laura Sonderman, Marshall University
“As a WPA, I’m constantly thinking about how i can help instructors teach their students to make specific rhetorical move on the page. This book offers a powerful way of teach-ing students to do just that.” —Joseph Bizup, Boston University
“The best tribute come ‘They to speak / i Say’ I’ve heard is this, indigenous a student: ‘This is one publication I’m not selling back to the bookstore.’ Nods all approximately the room. The students love this book.”
—Christine Ross, Quinnipiac University
“What result has ‘They Say’ had actually on mine students’ writing? they are ultimately entering the Burkian Parlor the the university. This book uncovers the rhetorical conventions the transcend dis-ciplinary boundaries, so that also freshmen, newcomers come the academy, are automatically able to sign up with in the conversation.”
—Margaret Weaver, Missouri State University
“It’s the anti-composition text: Fun, creative, humorous, bril-liant, effective.”
—Perry Cumbie, Durham Technical ar College
“Loved through students, reasonable priced, manageable size, readable.” —Roxanne Munch, Joliet small College
“This publication explains in clear information what skilled writers take for granted.” —John Hyman, American University
“The capacity to connect with the think of others is one of the many important skills taught in any kind of college-level composing course, and this publication does as good a project teaching that ability as any kind of text i have ever encountered.” —William Smith, Weatherford College
“A fabulous source for my students (and for me). I favor that it’s small, and also not overwhelming. It’s an extremely practical, and really demystifies the brand-new kind of writing students have actually to number out as they transition to college.” —Sara Glennon, Landmark College
T H ns R D E D ns T ns O N
“THEY SAY i SAY”The relocate s Tha t Ma t t e r
i n Academ i c Wr ns t i n g
T H ns R D E D i T ns O N
“THEY SAY ns SAY”The relocate s Tha t Ma t t e r
i n Academ ns c Wr i t i n g
CATHY BIRKENSTEINboth the the university of Illinois at Chicago
Bw . W . N o r t o n & c o m ns a n y
n e w y o r k | l o n d o n
For Aaron David
W. W. Norton & agency has been independent due to the fact that its founding in 1923, once William Warder Norton and also Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures ceded at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of brand-new York City’s Cooper Union. The for sure soon broadened its program past the Institute, publishing publications by commemorated academics from America and abroad. Through mid-century, the two major pillars the Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family members transferred control of the agency to its employees, and also today—with a employee of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles released each year—W. W. Norton & firm stands together the largest and also oldest publishing house owned wholly by that employees.
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preface to the third edition xi ns i
preface: Demystifying academic Conversation xvi
introduction: start the Conversation 1
PART 1 . “THEY SAY” 1 “they say”: starting with What Others space Saying 19 2 “her allude is”: The arts of Summarizing 30 3 “as he self puts it”: The arts of Quoting 42
PART 2. “ ns SAY”
4 “yes / no / okay, but”: Three methods to answers 55 5 “and yet”: differentiating What You to speak from What They speak 68 6 “skeptics may object”: Planting a Naysayer in Your message 78 7 “so what? who cares?”: saying Why It matters 92
PART 3. Tie IT all TOGETHER
8 “as a result”: Connecting the components 105 9 “a in’t therefore / is not”: scholastic Writing Doesn’t constantly
Mean setting Aside Your very own Voice 121 10 “but don’t gain me wrong”: The art of Metacommentary 129 11 “he states contends”: making use of the Templates to review 139
PART 4. IN specific ACADEMIC CONTEXTS
12 “i take your point”: Entering course Discussions 163 13 “imho”: Is Digital Communication great or Bad—or Both? 167 14 “what’s inspiring this writer?”:
Reading because that the Conversation 173 15 “on closer examination”: start Conversations
about literary works 184 16 “the data suggest”: writing in the scientific researches 202 17 “analyze this”: composing in the Social scientific researches 221
index of templates 293
preface come the third edition xiii
preface xviDemystifying academic Conversation
introduction 1Entering the Conversation
PART 1 . “THEY SAY” 17
one “they say” 19Starting with What Others are Saying
two “her suggest is” 30The art of Summarizing
three “as he himself puts it” 42The art of Quoting
PART 2 . “ ns SAY” 53
four “yes / no / okay, but” 55Three means to Respond
five “and yet” 68Distinguishing What You say from What lock Say
six “skeptics may object” 78Planting a Naysayer in your Text
seven “so what? who cares?” 92Saying Why the Matters
PART 3. T YING it ALL together 103
eight “as a result” 105Connecting the Parts
nine “ain’t so / is not” 121Academic creating Doesn’t always Mean setting Aside Your own Voice
ten “but don’t obtain me wrong” 129The art of Metacommentary
eleven “he says contends” 139Using the Templates to Revise
PART 4. IN details ACADEMIC CONTEXTS 161
twelve “i take your point” 163Entering class Discussions
thirteen “imho” 167Is Digital Communication good or Bad—or Both?
fourteen “what’s motivating this writer?” 173Reading because that the Conversation
fifteen “on closer examination” 184Entering Conversations around Literature
sixteen “the data suggest” 202Writing in the Sciences
seventeen “analyze this” 221Writing in the social Sciences
r e a d i n g s 239
Don’t reprimand the Eater 241David Zinczenko
Hidden Intellectualism 244Gerald Graff
Nuclear rubbish 252Richard A. Muller
The (Futile) quest of the American Dream 260Barbara Ehrenreich
Everything the Rises have to Converge 272Flannery O’Connor
index of templates 293
preface to the 3rd edition
We continue to be dazzling by the reception of ours book, which has actually now marketed over a million copies and also is assigned in much more than 1,500 (over half) the colleges and universities in the unified States. We are additionally delighted that while the audi-ence for our publication in ingredient courses proceeds to grow, the book is significantly being embraced in disciplines across the curriculum, confirming our see that the move taught in the book are central to every scholastic discipline. In ~ the very same time, we proceed to it is adapted our method to the specific ways the “they to speak / ns say” moves space deployed in various disciplines. To the end, this edition add to a brand-new chapter on writing around literature to the chapters already in the second Edition on creating in the sciences and also social sciences. In this brand-new chapter, “Entering Conversations about Literature,” we imply ways in i beg your pardon students and teachers deserve to move past the form of essay the analyzes literary works in isolation native the conversations and debates about those works. Among our premises here is the writing around literature, as around any subject, benefit in urgency, motivation, and also engage-ment when the writer responds to the job-related not in a vacuum, however in conversation with various other readers and critics. We believe that engaging with other readers, far from distracting attention from the literary text itself, should assist bring that text into sharper
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focus. An additional premise is the the course discussions that are a daily feature of literature courses can be a rich and provocative resource of “they says” that student writers can respond to in generating their very own interpretations. Throughout the chapter are countless templates that administer writers with language because that entering into conversations and also debates with these “they says”: released critics, classmates and also teachers, their very own previous interpretations, and also the authors of literary works themselves. This new edition likewise includes a chapter on “Using the Templates to Revise,” which flourished out of our own teaching experience, wherein we uncovered that the templates in this publication had the unexpected advantage of help students once they revise. We uncovered that when students read over their drafts with an eye because that the rhetorical moves stood for by the templates they were able to spot gaps in their argument, concessions they required to make, disconnections among ideas, insufficient summaries, poorly integrated quotations, and also other inquiries they required to address when revising. Have actually they integrated the views of naysayers v their own? If not, our quick revision guidelines can aid them carry out so. The new chapter has a full essay written by a student, annotated to display how the student offered all the rhetorical moves taught in this book. Finally, this edition to add a new chapter on composing online exploring the debate about whether digital technologies improve or degrade the method we think and also write, and also whether they foster or impede the meeting of minds. And given the prominence of virtual communication, we’re pleased the our publication now has actually its own blog, theysayiblog. To update monthly through current articles from throughout media, this blog offers a space where students and also teachers have the right to literally sign up with the conversation.
P R E FA C E T O T H E T H i R D E D ns T i O N
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even as we have actually revised and added to “They to speak / ns Say,” our an easy goals remain unchanged: to demystify scholastic writing and reading by identifying the crucial moves of persuasive argu-ment and also representing those move in forms that students can put into practice. Us hope this 3rd Edition will get us also closer to this goals, equipping students v the writing an abilities they need to go into the academic world and also beyond.
Preface to the third Edition
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Demystifying academic Conversation
Experienced composing instructors have long recognized that writing well way entering right into conversation v others. Academic writing in particular calls upon writers not simply to refer their very own ideas, yet to perform so as a response to what others have actually said. The first-year writing routine at our own university, according to that mission statement, asks “students to partici-pate in continuous conversations around vitally important scholastic and publicly issues.” A comparable statement by an additional program holds that “intellectual creating is nearly always created in solution to others’ texts.” this statements echo the concepts of rhetorical philosophers like Kenneth Burke, Mikhail Bakhtin, and also Wayne Booth and recent composition scholars prefer David Bartholomae, john Bean, Patricia Bizzell, Irene Clark, Greg Colomb, Lisa Ede, Peter Elbow, Joseph Harris, Andrea Lunsford, Elaine Maimon, Gary Olson, Mike Rose, man Swales and also Christine Feak, Tilly Warnock, and others who argue that writing well way engaging the voices the others and letting them subsequently engage us. Yet regardless of this growing agreement that creating is a social, conversational act, helping student authors actually partici-pate in this conversations continues to be a formidable challenge. This book aims to satisfy that challenge. Its goal is to demys-tify scholastic writing through isolating its simple moves, explaining them clearly, and also representing castle in the form of templates.
Demystifying academic Conversation
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In this way, we hope to assist students become energetic partici-pants in the necessary conversations of the academic world and also the wider public sphere.
• reflects that creating well method entering a conversation, sum-marizing rather (“they say”) to set up one’s own debate (“I say”).
• Demystifies academic writing, reflecting students “the moves that matter” in language they deserve to readily apply.
• provides user-friendly templates to help writers do those moves in their own writing.
• reflects that reading is a means of start a conversation—not simply of passively soaking up information however of knowledge and actively entering dialogues and debates.
how this publication came to be
The original idea because that this book grew the end of our common inter-est in democratizing academic culture. First, it prospered out of arguments that Gerald Graff has actually been making throughout his career the schools and also colleges should invite students right into the conversations and also debates the surround them. More spe-cifically, the is a practical, hands-on companion come his current book, Clueless in Academe: exactly how Schooling Obscures the Life of the Mind, in which he looks at academic conversations indigenous the view of those who find them mysterious and proposes means in which such mystification deserve to be overcome. Second,
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this publication grew out of creating templates that Cathy Birkenstein arisen in the 1990s, for use in writing and literature process she was teaching. Countless students, she found, could readily grasp what it intended to assistance a thesis v evidence, to game a counter argument, to determine a textual contradiction, and also ultimately come summarize and also respond to complicated arguments, but they regularly had trouble placing these principles into practice in their own writing. Once Cathy sketched out templates top top the board, however, offering her students few of the language and also patterns the these advanced moves require, their writing—and also their top quality of thought—significantly improved. This book began, then, once we put our concepts together and also realized that these templates could have the potential to open up up and clarify scholastic conversation. Us proceeded native the premise that all writers rely on details stock formulas that they us didn’t invent—and that countless of these formulas room so frequently used the they have the right to be represented in model templates the students deserve to use to structure and even create what they desire to say. As we emerged a working draft the this book, we began using that in first-year composing courses that us teach in ~ UIC. In class-room exercises and also writing assignments, we uncovered that students that otherwise struggled to organize their thoughts, or even to think that something come say, walk much far better when we noted them with templates prefer the following.
j In discussions of , a controversial worry is whether
. While some argue that , others compete
j This is no to say that .
Demystifying scholastic Conversation
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One virtue of together templates, we found, is the they emphasis writers’ fist not simply on what is being said, however on the creates that framework what is being said. In various other words, they make students more conscious of the rhetorical fads that are an essential to scholastic success however often happen under the classroom radar.
the centrality of “they to speak / i say”
The main rhetorical move that we emphasis on in this publication is the “they say / i say” design template that offers our book its title. In our view, this template represents the deep, basic structure, the inner DNA as it were, of all reliable argument. Effective persuasive authors do more than make well-supported insurance claims (“I say”); they additionally map those claims relative to the insurance claims of others (“they say”). Here, for example, the “they to speak / ns say” pattern structures a i from one essay by the media and technology critic Steven Johnson.
For decades, we’ve worked under the presumption that massive cul-ture complies with a path declining steadily toward lowest-common-denominator standards, presumably due to the fact that the “masses” desire dumb, straightforward pleasures and big media companies shot to offer the masses what castle want. But . . . The precise opposite is happening: the society is getting an ext cognitively demanding, no less.
Steven Johnson, “Watching TV makes You Smarter”
In generating his own dispute from something “they say,” Johnson suggests why he needs to say what he is saying: to exactly a popular misconception.
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even when writers perform not explicitly identify the see they space responding to, together Johnson does, an implicit “they say” can often be discerned, as in the adhering to passage by Zora Neale Hurston.
I remember the day I came to be colored.Zora Neale Hurston, “How the Feels come Be fancy Me”
In stimulate to grasp Hurston’s point here, we need to be able to reconstruct the implicit check out she is responding to and also question-ing: the racial identification is an inherent quality us are simply born with. On the contrary, Hurston suggests, our gyeongju is implemented on united state by society—something we “become” through virtue of exactly how we space treated. As these instances suggest, the “they to speak / i say” model can improve not simply student writing, yet student analysis compre-hension together well. Because reading and writing room deeply recipro-cal activities, college student who discover to make the rhetorical moves represented by the templates in this book figure come become much more adept at identify these same moves in the texts they read. And if we are appropriate that effective disagreements are constantly in conversation with other arguments, climate it follows that in stimulate to know the species of an overwhelming texts assigned in college, students require to identify the views to i m sorry those texts space responding. Working v the “they to speak / ns say” model have the right to also aid with invention, detect something to say. In our experience, students finest discover what they desire to say not by thinking around a subject in one isolation booth, yet by reading texts, listening closely to what various other writers say, and looking because that an opening through which they can get in the conversation. In other words, listening closely to others and also summarizing what they have to say can assist writers generate their own ideas.
Demystifying academic Conversation
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the usefulness that templates
Our templates also have a generative quality, prompting stu-dents to make moves in their composing that they might not oth-erwise make or even know they have to make. The templates in this book can be an especially helpful for students who are unsure about what come say, or who have actually trouble finding sufficient to say, often since they think about their own ideas so self-evident that they need not be suggested for. Students like this are frequently helped, we’ve found, when we give them a straightforward tem-plate prefer the complying with one for entertaining a counterargument (or planting a naysayer, as we call it in thing 6).
j Of food some could object the . Although i concede
that , ns still keep that .
What this specific template helps students do is do the watch counterintuitive relocate of questioning their own beliefs, the looking at them indigenous the view of those that disagree. In so doing, templates can lug out elements of stu-dents’ thoughts that, as they themselves occasionally remark, they didn’t also realize were there. Various other templates in this book aid students do a organize of sophisticated moves the they might not otherwise make: sum-marizing what someone rather says, framing a quotation in one’s very own words, denote the check out that the writer is responding to, noting the change from a source’s watch to the writer’s own view, offering proof for that view, entertaining and answering counterarguments, and also explaining what is at stake in the first place. In mirroring students just how to make such moves, templates do an ext than organize students’ ideas; they help bring those principles into existence.
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okay, yet templates?
We space aware, that course, that some instructors may have res-ervations about templates. Some, because that instance, may object that such formulaic gadgets represent a return to prescriptive creates of instruction that encourage passive finding out or lead students to placed their creating on automatically pilot. This is one understandable reaction, we think, to kinds of rote instruction that have actually indeed urged passivity and also drained writing of the creativity and also dynamic relation to the society world. The problem is that numerous students will certainly never discover on their own to make the an essential intellectual moves the our templates repre-sent. While seasoned authors pick up this moves unconsciously through their reading, numerous students perform not. Consequently, we believe, students have to see these moves represented in the explicit ways that the templates provide. The target of the templates, then, is no to stifle crucial thinking yet to be straight with students about the vital rhetori-cal moves the it comprises. Due to the fact that we encourage students to modify and adapt the templates to the particularities of the disagreements they are making, utilizing such prefabricated recipe as finding out tools require not an outcome in writing and thinking that are themselves formulaic. Admittedly, no teaching tool can guarantee the students will interact in hard, rigorous thought. Ours templates do, however, carry out concrete prompts that deserve to stimulate and shape such thought: What do “they say” about my topic? What would certainly a naysayer say around my argument? What is mine evidence? perform I have to qualify mine point? that cares? In fact, templates have actually a long and rich history. Publicly orators from ancient Greece and also Rome through the europe Renais-sance learned rhetorical topoi or “commonplaces,” version passages and formulas that represented the various strategies accessible
Demystifying academic Conversation
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to windy speakers. In plenty of respects, our templates echo this classical rhetorical legacy of imitating developed models. The newspaper Nature requires aspiring contributors to monitor a reminder that is prefer a template on the opening page of your manuscript: “Two or three sentences explaining what the main result
.” that these two examples are geared towards post-doctoral fellows and also veteran researchers shows that the is not just struggling undergraduates who have the right to use aid making these key rhetorical moves, however experienced academics as well. Templates have even been supplied in the to teach of an individual narrative. The literary and educational thinker Jane Tompkins devised the complying with template to help student writers make the often an overwhelming move from telling a story to explaining what the means: “X tells a story about to make the suggest that
. My own experience v yields a suggest that is similar/different/both similar and different. What ns take far from my very own experience v is . As a result, ns conclude .” We particularly like this template since it suggests that “they speak / i say” dispute need not be mechanical, impersonal, or dry, and that informing a story and mak-ing an debate are more compatible tasks than numerous think.