By the end of this section, friend will:Explain the paper definition in i beg your pardon the republic emerged from 1800 to 1828


In 1800, the Federalist Party managed both houses of Congress, john Adams was president, the Sedition Act to be still in place, and the nation was reeling indigenous the situations sparked through the Quasi-War through France. By the finish of 1828, the Federalist Party to be extinct and the Jeffersonian republic had fully triumphed, though regularly through Hamiltonian policies. The nation was in the middle of a period of tremendous growth in nearly all realms, an especially economic and territorial. Andrew Jackson had beat John Adams’s son, incumbent man Quincy Adams, to win the presidency. Jacksonianism signaled the growth of suffrage to every white men and their widespread, democratic political authorized in an exceptional manner, though women and also African americans were not included. A brand-new post-Revolutionary generation constructed the new nation as farmers and also merchants, and national leaders.

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Compare the presidential portrait that (a) Andrew Jackson through Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl in 1837 with the presidential portrait of (b) man Quincy Adams through George Peter Alexander Healy in 1858. In what ways are they similar and different? What to be the artists trying to convey?

Jeffersonian America

Thomas Jefferson’s choice to the presidency was secured narrowly, and only after thirty-six controversial ballots in the house of Representatives, which had to rest an electoral-vote tie between Jefferson and also Aaron Burr (see the Was the choice of 1800 a Revolution? Point-Counterpoint). The Jeffersonian Republicans also took manage of the House and also Senate as well as many state legislatures. Jefferson’s unique leadership format was nimble, and also it showed to be popular. His peaceful personality and great manners make him an exceptional host who often disarmed guests at his dinners and also social gatherings. He assumed the Federalists had produced a presidency full of monarchical trappings, and he make the office appear more democratic.

Jeffersonian Republicans believed in to decrease the size of government by cutting taxes and also working to remove the debt. Castle favored an agriculture-based economy and also praised the appropriate of the elevation farmer, though agriculture in the nation ranged from small independent farms to large plantations. The Jeffersonians ongoing their antipathy toward an excellent Britain in the Napoleonic Wars. Although they held an ideological belief, base in the American Revolution, the power might easily it is in abused, Jefferson himself exercised solid executive power and interpreted the structure broadly.

Although Jeffersonian republic did not ruin the nationwide bank, they refused to renew the charter, and they encouraged the development of state banks. In their very first congressional session in 1801, Jeffersonians repealed all inner taxes, reduced spending, and also began come pay turn off the debt as easily as possible. They preferred that elevating tax revenue be left come the state governments. Through 1812, they had actually shaved $27.5 million indigenous a debt when gauged at virtually $83 million. Furthermore, lock stepped earlier from the idea of federal government interference in the economy, preferring come let individual decisions by citizens drive the economy, rather of a nationwide policy. These political and ideological choices placed more power in the hands of personal citizens and their neighborhood governing bodies, fueling the growth of politics democracy and of individual liberty, two vital components that Jeffersonianism and also examples of climbing democratization.

The can be fried Court became associated in the politics of the Jefferson administration, notably in the famous situation of Marbury v. Madison (1803). Chief Justice Marshall’s ruling was masterful. The 1801 Judiciary Act expanded the variety of federal judges and, together outgoing president, Adams had actually made numerous “midnight” appointments prior to Jefferson take it office. Among the appointed justices, william Marbury, did not get his commission because that the office indigenous incoming Secretary that State James Madison and sued for it come be delivered to him. The Court agreed the Marbury had a right to the commission however declared that part of the Judiciary action of 1789 to be unconstitutional, thus restricting its own power come order the the supervisory board to it is in given. In this way, cook Justice Marshall avoided a direct political collision v Jefferson (who sought to turning back Adams’s last-minute appointments of Federalist judges to the bench). Marshall then additionally asserted the Court’s power to translate the constitution (by declaring component of the action unconstitutional), since it to be “emphatically the district and duty the the judicial department to say what the legislation is.” The judgment helped establish the principle of judicial review, though it did not insurance claim the Court had actually an undisputed appropriate to analyze the Constitution. But even within the borders of a narrow decision, it sent a very strong statement about the function of the Court in future matters (see the Marbury v. Madison Decision Point).

Watch this BRI Homework Help video on Marbury v. Madison for a an overview of chief Justice Marshall’s decision:

The Jefferson administration is remarkable for skilled diplomacy, opportune circumstances, and, when it pertained to the Louisiana Purchase, plain great luck. American diplomats uncovered Napoleon prepared to offer the whole Louisiana are for the remarkable price of only $15 million. An extraordinary windfall, the acquisition doubled the size of the country, stretching from the Mississippi flow to the Rockies, at a cheap price. The purchase developed ample room because that the advancement of Jefferson’s “empire of liberty” by opened a large tract of highly productive soil for farmers. It removed a european rival’s visibility from phibìc America, which had an excellent strategic prominence for the nation.


But nothing in the Constitution offered the chairman the certain power to do such a purchase, and also as a strict constructionist, Jefferson was recorded in a bind. He said that the purchase was so helpful to the future an excellent of the nation that no president might dare pass it up and bent his values to a much more Hamiltonian loosened construction. Thus, the overcame his very own doubts about the constitutionality of together a move and urged Senate republic to ratify the purchase as a treaty, i m sorry they did by a vote of 24 to 7, and the residence of Representatives introduced a bill appropriating the funds. The Federalists fiercely opposed the purchase since they feared the activity of Jeffersonian Republicans right into the new lands, v the potential to expand their political power. However, public solution to the acquisition was overwhelmingly positive.

Americans knew nearly nothing about the freshly purchased soil itself. To investigate it, Jefferson named Meriwether Lewis and also William Clark to form an exploratory expedition. Their team spent two year trekking indigenous St. Louis come the Pacific and also back, illustration maps, collecting samples, taking detailed notes, and also compiling illustrations of their findings. Meanwhile, a Shoshone woman and also interpreter named Sacagawea assisted them navigate interactions with the miscellaneous American Indian people they encountered. The Lewis and also Clark expedition made it abundantly clear just how beneficial and crucial the new territory would be to the young nation (see the The Lewis and also Clark Expedition Narrative and The journals of Lewis and Clark, 1805 Primary Source).

The an excellent fortune and practically unbroken record of success of Jefferson’s an initial term resulted in his landslide reelection in 1804. Jefferson received 162 electoral votes, vanquishing his opponent, south Carolina Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, who got 14. Also Massachusetts, the former Federalist basic camp, voted because that Jefferson in 1804. But Jefferson’s success pertained to a crashing halt during his 2nd term, primarily as result of the renewed conflict between great Britain and also France. Americans insisted on their appropriate to trade with both warring nations. Neither the French no one the British to be willing to enable U.S. Products to obtain through come the various other nation. Lock blockaded each other and violated American neutral rights.

Between 1793 and also 1811, the brothers also impressed nearly ten thousands American seafarers into business in the brother Navy. The worst event by far, however, emerged just off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia, in June 1807, as soon as the H.M.S. Leopard fired upon the U.S.S. Chesapeake, death three and wounding eighteen. 4 alleged deserters native the royal Navy to be carted off the Chesapeake, one that whom to be hanged automatically as an example to the others.

Americans to be furious; some demanded retaliation and even war. Jefferson proposed instead an embargo on all U.S. Pearl leaving the nation’s harbors. There would be no fiddle of U.S. Goods to any country nor any type of imports, to pressure the European powers to renounce interference through American trade and seizures of ships. The Embargo act of 1807 mostly hurt U.S. Trade, however, with exports collapsing indigenous $108 million to $39 million, and it failed come coerce either the brother or French come respect American neutral rights. The embargo was especially unpopular in brand-new England, wherein it grounded trade and sparked a politics revival amongst the Federalists in the 1808 elections. Jefferson left office in march 1809, despondent end the embargo’s failure.


In this politics cartoon criticizing the Embargo plot of 1807, a snapping turtle called Ograbme (embargo spelled backward) is biting the merchants.

In 1808, James Madison was elected Jefferson’s successor and continued the trade restrictions he had supported together secretary the state. Jefferson had signed Congress’s repeal the the embargo on in march 1, 1809, days prior to leaving office. In ~ the begin of Madison’s presidency, republicans in conference passed the Non-Intercourse Act, which forbade the income of French and also British items but permitted American pearl to leaving their harbors and trade v any country except the 2 belligerents. The measure was also unenforceable and also led to plenty of violations by American shippers, who continued to trade through the British and the French. This second failed attempt to regulate trade with the warring strength gave means to Macon’s invoice No. 2, which permitted the United states to reopen trade through all nations, including England and France, and stipulated the if either nation renounced its restrictions on American shipping, the United claims would cut off the trade through the other.

The battle of 1812

The wily Napoleon trick Madison by announcing he was repealing his trade decrees, prompting the american to renounce trade v the British. However the French did no such thing; they ongoing to grab ships—more than the brothers did in between 1807 and also 1812. Despite this betrayal by the French, tensions between the Americans and British ratcheted upward. Some Americans welcomed another war v the British, see a military problem as a way of reasserting national pride, and also “War Hawks” in conference such together Kentucky’s Henry Clay suggested that honor demanded a fight. Besides nationwide honor, this southern and also western members the Congress likewise wanted to attack Canada to expel the British and expand the frontier together a method to expel the indigenous Americans. Madison go not look for war but found himself under boosting pressure come ask Congress for a declaration. Despite strong opposition from Federalists and also a far-ranging number the Republicans, conference voted come declare battle on brothers on June 18, 1812, and also what part Americans came to think of as a second war for self-reliance was shortly underway.


A politics cartoon from about 1813 illustrating Lady Columbia together the United claims (left) Napoleon together France (middle) and also John Bull an imaginary number representing britain (right). Lady Columbia attempts come lecture john Bull on cost-free trade and also a ship’s appropriate to totally free passage of the seas. John Bull doesn’t want to listen and instead reads a publication that says “Power constitutes right.”

The British were preoccupied with the fighting in Europe and also at first dedicated little attention to north America. Meanwhile, the united States released unsuccessful campaigns versus the british in Canada and also engaged the British navy in sea battles. However, miscellaneous tribes in the Northwest had joined together in a confederacy under the management of Shawnee Tecumseh and also his brother, the visionary prophet Tenskwatawa. They decided to fight with the British to resist additional white encroachment into the area. Thus, the British and Indian confederacy fought versus American settlers throughout the great Lakes area throughout the war.

In 1814, the British introduced three significant operations throughout the unified States: in the Chesapeake just area, at Lake Champlain in new York, and also at the mouth of the Mississippi River. In August, british soldiers routed poorly trained U.S. Soldiers and also seized Washington, DC. They shed the White House, forcing Madison and also the federal government to flee in what to be the awkward low allude of the war for the unified States. The British then turned north towards Baltimore and also assaulted fort McHenry, organized by the Americans, but failed to take it it (see the Fort McHenry and the war of 1812 Narrative). The British invasion in new York was likewise turned ago as the americans secured the nation’s north border against heavy odds. Finally, in December 1814, british troops landing at brand-new Orleans, struck well-entrenched American forces commanded through Andrew Jackson, and also suffered a crushing loss (see the Old Hickory: Andrew Jackson and the fight of brand-new Orleans Narrative).

Watch this BRI Homework Help video clip on early 1800s U.S. International Policy for a an extensive review that the early republic’s foreign affairs:

Because of slow-moving communications, the battle of new Orleans emerged shortly after ~ the signing of the contract of Ghent, i m sorry had currently ended the war. The treaty was inconclusive, reflecting the fact that the problem had been greatly a stalemate. Both political parties agreed to return to the “status quo antebellum,” the conditions that had actually existed at the begin of the conflict, and also the naval violations were not resolved. One decisive loser that the conflict turned out to be the Federalists. They had opposed a renowned war that resulted in patriotic fervor and also were versus the profession restrictions, which had hurt brand-new England trade. Some members that the Federalist Party gathered in convention at Hartford, Connecticut, in so late 1814 and early 1815, wherein talk that a separate new England confederacy struck many Americans as disloyal. And the timing discredited the party, due to the fact that news that the Hartford convention reached plenty of Americans at almost the very same time together news the the great victory at brand-new Orleans and the tranquility treaty. Together a result, the Federalists were soon spent together a political force and the party disappeared (see the The Hartford Convention Decision Point).

The war was also specifically disastrous for native Americans. The British had actually been their allies and had listed them through leverage in handling the Americans. When the British withdrew from the united States, the outnumbered and weakened native Americans had no counterweight remaining. On height of this, the Shawnee lost their great leader Tecumseh, who was eliminated by U.S. Forces at the battle of the Thames in 1813 (see the Tecumseh and the Prophet Narrative). These pair blows left American indians isolated and also increasingly in ~ the mercy that land-hungry whites, who ongoing to press westward ~ the war, explain Indian territories as their own. American ind soon uncovered the war and also its results left them more vulnerable come removal.

In Washington, however, amid celebratory patriotism, the Jeffersonian Republicans enjoyed one-party preeminence in a time referred to as the “Era of good Feelings.” In 1816, Madison left office and his allied James Monroe pertained to the presidency. Monroe’s term was no without controversy, and also the era the one-party domination was quite short-lived since different sectional and ideological factions began to emerge amongst the Jeffersonian Republicans. Nevertheless, Monroe to be reelected practically without the contrary in 1820. Three years later, that issued a major statement the American foreign policy well-known as the Monroe Doctrine, i beg your pardon guided the nation’s diplomatic values for virtually two centuries. It restated the pledge that George Washington’s 1796 Farewell deal with that the United says would no meddle in europe affairs, but it additionally warned Europeans the the ameri were not open to any kind of further emigration by rival powers (see the The Monroe Doctrine, 1823 Primary Source).

Market revolution and transportation Revolution

Even as the battle of 1812 was ending, the United claims was already being reshaped through three significant transformations. The Market revolution and the Transportation transformation changed the method Americans worked and also lived, and also each helped create a new integrated national economic climate that, in turn, transformed the means the nation bought and also sold goods, manufactured items for intake at home and also abroad, and engaged in trade across the Atlantic world.

The year before and during the war of 1812 significant a transforming point for the U.S. Economy. With access to British goods blocked by embargo or war, the very first years of the nineteenth century engendered tremendous expansion in manufacturing, particularly in textiles. The end of the war relocated a great deal that capital back into the economy, and also government policies that encouraged economic growth, such as a safety tariff, a national bank, and help to interior improvements, spurred development. Chairman Madison and Jeffersonian republic in Congress hired the 2nd National Bank, the security tariff of 1816 (which increased rates through an median of 25 percent), and debated security on canals and roads. Federal spending on internal renovations failed since Madison, Monroe, and also their allies in Congress assumed it to be unconstitutional and required a constitution amendment. Many of the safety on infrastructure for this reason was excellent by state governments and also private investors.

The first couple of decades the the nineteenth century experienced the increase of a truly national sector system, through the agricultural economy becoming an ext varied and diversified. Together the United states developed more of its own manufacturing capacity, it relied much less on foreign trade for goods and more on its very own production. Americans started trading more with every other, shipping resources choose cotton from the south to north textile factories, whereby they were made right into finished goods and also then sold around the nation, transported overland top top roads and also by water ~ above rivers and also canals.

With the aid of the cotton gin, the southern grew and also exported numerous pounds of noodle to british markets. By 1840, the United claims was growing approximately 60 percent that the world’s cotton supply, and also cotton comprised two-thirds of American exports. Northern factories made the cotton right into cloth, and also northern shipping transported the cotton and finished textiles come Europe, despite British mills conquered the world market. Southern planters invest their revenues even much more heavily in enslaved persons and in land, because these to be the 2 essentials of noodle production. In the North, small-scale manufacturing by artisans began to give method to larger-scale factories with machinery that can turn out large amounts that goods, such together the renowned mills in Lowell, Massachusetts.


After the invention of the cotton gin, the production of cotton boosted dramatically. By 1840 the United states was producing roughly 60 percent that the world’s supply. (credit: “U.S. Cotton production 1790-1834” by bill of legal rights Institute/Flickr CC by 4.0)

These industry expansions also readjusted women’s duty on the farm. In enhancement to the heavy burdens the domestic and farming chores, ladies now absorbed piecework favor sewing and also knitting. Rather of producing only sufficient for family consumption, lock participated in the market transformation by make or farming surplus because that sale in neighborhood markets. Young farm women offered the labor at the Lowell mills. Most women, however, participated in production by taking part in a bigger production process by making small items within their homes in a system referred to as “outwork.” with workplace and also home becoming an ext distinct from each various other in the North, separate spheres for men and also women emerged. Men increasingly joined the public human being of work and commerce, when women, also though part young women operated in new England factories, to be relegated come the exclusive sphere of home life, wherein they were expected maintain a home based on Victorian virtues for their husbands and children follow to the “cult the domesticity.” Piety, purity, submissiveness, and also domesticity to be the desired traits that defined what was likewise known as the “cult of true womanhood.” Magazines and also treatises top top homemaking listed middle-class women v advice on household matters and also child-rearing and shaped perfect of comfortable domestic bliss because that families. Of course, such aspirations were mainly unattainable for working-class, rural, and cost-free black women, to say nothing of countless thousands the enslaved women.

For the market economic situation to end up being truly national, a transport network linking various parts of the nation was crucial so goods and also raw materials could move easily, quickly, and also inexpensively. The transportation change that carried this around was bolstered through three central mechanisms: canals, steamboats, and also railroads. State governments and also private investment built thousands of miles of canals, choose the Erie Canal in upstate brand-new York (see the The building of the Erie Canal Narrative). Canals make it possible to transport products on flatboats connecting miscellaneous rivers and waterways, helping to attach the nation’s economy. Steamboats relocated people and goods upstream versus river currents and significantly diminished the time and cost the shipping goods and also resources top top rivers and major waterways. Eventually, water travel was overtaken by the climb of railroads, which can move people and goods even faster, efficiently shortening time and also distance. The 1830s were a te of an essential growth for the rail industry, and by 1840, there to be 3,300 miles of railroads in the unified States. Because the nation seemed always to be in motion, through goods and products and people in continuous transit, the market change also helped encourage higher individualism and democratization.

The United states experienced incredible growth in population as well, moved by organic increase and also by immigration. The populace doubled throughout the duration 1800–1828 and continued to twin every twenty-two years until the civil War, from roughly 4 million civilization in 1790 come 9 million in 1820, and to 23 million in 1850. This enormous growth put push on resources and also the environment, and it cultivated political, economic, and also social conflicts. It likewise gave increase to the development of cities and to the westward spread of the nation.

Government and the market Revolution

After the war of 1812, some politicians supported nationally funded inner improvements, a nationwide bank, and a protective tariff under a philosophy known as economic nationalism. The charter for the original financial institution of the United claims expired in 1811 and was no renewed, producing economic chaos throughout the war. Chairman Madison, lengthy an opponent of Hamilton’s national bank on constitution grounds, sustained the bank’s recharter in 1811, yet the Republican Congress defeated it. In 1816, the Republican congress relented and rechartered the bank for twenty years.

The Tariff of 1816 safeguarded American market from european competition. Although it enhanced the price of goods, the tariff was commonly supported, particularly in the North and also even by some in the South. South Carolina’s congressional representative john C. Calhoun sustained a protective tariff and put through the residence a arrangement to money internal improvements. This time, opposition come from brand-new England and also the South, because the West would primarily advantage from the result roads and also waterways. Chairman Madison vetoed the bill, however, because he thought it was unconstitutional unless an amendment to be passed empowering the federal government to connect in such projects. Otherwise, states had responsibility for inner improvements.


This portrait of john C. Calhoun to be painted through George Peter Alexander Healy around 1845 when Calhoun to be serving together the sixteenth secretary the state. Calhoun to be a fixture in U.S. Politics for the first half that the nineteenth century serving as congressional representative councilor vice president secretary the state and also secretary that war.

Economic nationalism prevailed in a collection of supreme Court decisions. In cases such as Dartmouth university v. Woodward (1816), McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), and Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), man Marshall’s can be fried Court moved boldly come assert the legal rights of the national government over the states and to reinforce the power of contracts and charters the favored businesses and also corporations. In the process, the Court expanded the reach and extent of the federal strength over commerce. These rulings placed the power of the country judicial branch on the next of consolidation, centralization, the nationwide government, and private industry (see the John Marshall’s Landmark instances DBQ Lesson).

Expansion populace of the West and also Slavery

As the nation and the national economic situation moved west, so also did the college of slavery. President thomas Jefferson had actually signed the invoice outlawing the income of enslaved persons in 1808, but slavery did not die of its very own volition, together the co-founder hoped. Many thanks to the technical breakthrough of the cotton gin and to the increasing need for cotton, slavery’s host on the American economic climate strengthened. White farmers surged westward right into the new states of Alabama and also Mississippi and states created from the Louisiana Territory, happen their servants with them come raise cotton. In short, slavery came to be even an ext deeply entrenched in the United claims from 1800 come 1828. (See the Changing views of enslavement Mini-DBQ Lesson.)


The graph shows rapid populace growth in the south from 1790 to the civil War. What factors might account because that this rate of population growth? (credit: “Population the the south 1790-1860” by bill of legal rights Institute/Flickr CC by 4.0)

The solution of slavery and the experience of enslaved people in the nation varied widely. Slaves functioned on different plants depending ~ above the region and labored on big plantations, on little farms, and also in metropolitan areas. A booming residential market traded enslaved persons, whose value rose in addition to the profits created by your labor. Together the slave economic climate took deeper hold, economic distinctions emerged in between poor and also middling white farmers who owned couple of or no slaves and wealthy planters that owned many.

The enslaved faced tightening legal and also policing controls on their movement and harsher technique imposed by their owners. Southerners viewed slaves through the lens of building rights and also increasingly strengthened the organize of owner on their chattel slaves. Slave rebellions were put down swiftly and ferociously. In 1800, Virginian servant Gabriel Prosser search to lead a slave rebellion for equal natural rights, however dozens of the slaves were captured prior to they could begin the revolt and also were hanged. In 1822, southern Carolinian Denmark Vesey, a totally free black man, was influenced by the Christian ideals the the Second an excellent Awakening and tried to begin a revolt, yet it met the exact same fate together Gabriel’s Rebellion. Still, the possibility of rebellion and also violence remained a an effective dread among white southerners of every classes, who reacted with swift vengeance come suppress any slave revolt.

National Politics

In 1819–1820, a pair of crises stunned the nation, threatened union and also harmony, and also dramatically ended the Era of an excellent Feelings. First, the fallen of noodle prices in the London sector triggered the begin of the panic of 1819, a wide-ranging economic depression that revealed the fragile nature that the postwar boom. The price that U.S. Cotton fell from 32.5 cents per lb in 1818 to 14.3 cents per lb a year later, sending out the vast U.S. Cotton sector reeling. A dangerous bubble in land and other products had likewise grown in the unified States, sustained by an growth of credit transaction by state banks. Those financial institutions made reckless loans and also issued banknotes beyond their ability to redeem them. Even the brand-new Second financial institution of the joined States, i m sorry was claimed to inject order and also reason right into banking, got captured in the speculative mania and also became overextended together well. The credit transaction contraction prolonged throughout the nation and plunged the nation into an financial depression. The shock of tough times led to a lingering mistrust and also resentment that banks and also the financial elite, especially in the South and West.

Then, as the country staggered under the panic of 1819, the westward growth of slavery touched off an additional divisive conflict. This controversy stemmed from a controversy in the house of Representatives over a bill that would allow Missouri to breeze a proslavery constitution and also enter the union as a servant state, upsetting the balance the eleven cost-free and eleven slave states—and the balance of power in Congress. Controversy was fierce, occasionally violent. Votes took ar along strong sectional lines, and also the Senate pass a statehood bill allowing slavery in Missouri. Southerners witnessed slaveholding as a matter of residential property rights, vice versa, northerners countered that the expansion of enslavement was a treason of the starting generation’s commitment, expressed in the Northwest Ordinance, to restrict slavery to the locations where it already existed.

Speaker of the house Henry Clay, propose a means to end the controversy and avoid future problems over westward expansion and also slavery. Under the regards to the Missouri Compromise of 1820, Missouri would certainly be admitted together a slave state, Maine would certainly be admitted as a cost-free state, and also a demarcation line would certainly be drawn through the Louisiana are at the 36° 30′ parallel, v a guarantee that slavery would not be allowed north of the line however would be unhindered south of it (see the The Missouri Compromise Decision Point).


Although Clay was praised for saving the union, bitterness over the measure remained. Many of all, Americans had now viewed very clearly how intense and divisive the slavery problem could be. Cutting board Jefferson, in the last decade of his life, described slavery in the context of the Missouri dilemm as “a fire bell in the night” and also warned the slavery can lead to civil battle (see the walk the Missouri damage Merely hold-up War? Point-Counterpoint).


An 1818 portrait that the young Henry Clay. Recognized as the “Great Compromiser ” Clay aided his country navigate the turmoil of sectionalism by finding solutions to problems that northern and southern states could support.

The nation lurched towards the presidential choice of 1824 at a time when the very first political party device was break up and also a new one had actually yet to emerge. Component of what journey the come of a new political era was the democratization of national politics for white guys that both furthered and built top top the expansion occurring in the economy. The republicans were currently so diverse ideologically, geographically, and also politically that the party separation into competitor factions, turning the 1824 dispute for the White home into a spirited affair. 3 contenders—John Quincy Adams, john C. Calhoun, and also William Crawford—were respected members of president Monroe’s cabinet. The the various other contenders, Henry Clay to be the speak of the House, and Andrew Jackson was a listed Indian fighter and also the hero of the fight of brand-new Orleans (see the Cartoon Analysis: The Presidential choice of 1824 Primary Source).

The election turned more on personalities and sectional allegiances than on worries or ideology. Jackson had a slim edge over Adams in the popular and electoral votes, with Clay in third place. However no candidate garnered the needed bulk in the Electoral College, and also the election, as in 1800, went to the residence of Representatives. Clay, who despised Jackson and also saw him as a attention rival, threw his support to Adams, and also Adams was chosen president through the House.


A map depicting the results of the election of 1824. Note the sectional divide as Adams brushed up the brand-new England an ar while Jackson won most of the South. (credit: “Election of 1824” by bill of rights Institute/Flickr CC by 4.0)

Adams soon called Clay together his Secretary of State, i m sorry infuriated Jackson and his supporters. Castle charged the Adams and also Clay had made a “corrupt bargain” the secured the presidency for Adams and placed Clay in the office that had actually been the steppingstone come the White residence for the 4 previous occupants (see the The corrupt Bargain Narrative). Together a an outcome of this bargain, lock charged, Jackson, or “Old Hickory,” together he to be known, had actually been shunted aside in spite of winning the many popular and electoral votes, and also the will of the human being had been ignored. Back no proof has arised that any type of sort of transaction was ever before struck, the fee dogged Adams transparent his presidency and also Clay throughout his career. Furthermore, Jackson and his allies nursed this grievance because that the ensuing four years and also made the fee of corruption a centerpiece of the 1828 campaign. In that race, Jackson won a decisive win over Adams, vanquishing his rival and also ushering in a brand-new era in U.S. History that consolidated the democratization that had actually been emerging throughout many fronts since at the very least 1800 with the global vote and greater politics participation for white males of all classes.


From 1800 come 1828, the young nation experienced rapid financial growth and also geographical growth westward. For a time, the spirit of harmony, union, and patriotism that existed ~ the battle of 1812 in The Era of an excellent Feelings was real and also significant. Yet continuing tensions in ~ American society eventually overtook those sentiments. Conflicts over slavery and also sectionalism, the economy and also markets, and also politics and ideology separated the country during the Antebellum Era. The root of these departments were created in the 1800–1828 era, noting it together a time of stupendous development that nevertheless masked implicitly tensions and animosities that at some point foreclosed every compromises.


As the nineteenth century dawned the unified States gone into a duration of remarkable economic and territorial growth. A brand-new generation that leaders arised to guide the cultivation republic through brand-new challenges.

Additional thing Resources:

Review Questions

1. The presidential election of 1824 finished with

Andrew Jackson leading the renowned vote and also becoming presidentAndrew Jackson shedding the choice in the residence of Representatives in spite of leading the well-known voteAndrew Jackson receiving fellow westerner Henry Clay’s endorsementAndrew Jackson ending up being vice chairman under President man Quincy Adams

2. Which statement ideal describes cutting board Jefferson’s first term together president?

He betrayed his campaign principles alienating his supporters after having won a clear and also convincing success in the electoral vote.He maintained his main point principles and also pragmatically adjusted to the situations he faced in office.He bonus Federalists v prime location in his new administration.His action did tiny to adjust the nation from the one that emerged during the Washington and Adams administrations.

3. I beg your pardon idea is inconsistent v Jeffersonian Republicanism?

Belief in an agrarian-based economySupport because that decentralized politics powerSupport for an excellent Britain in international policySupport of state federal government power

4. Cutting board Jefferson’s choice in 1800 can most accurately be described as

a repudiation the French interference in American politicssurprising provided Jefferson’s monarchical bearing and elitist mannerslimited in scope due to the fact that Jeffersonian-Republican victories did not extend past the presidencya denial of the Federalist plans of the 1790s

5. Every the following were part of President thomas Jefferson’s method to financial plan except

encouraging the expansion of state banksrenewing the charter that the national bankrepealing all interior taxesreducing commonwealth debt

6. Throughout the Jeffersonian Era the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court illustrated

a denial of the major political ideology of the Federalist erathe subordination of judicial power to that of the Congress and the presidenta willingness come decide situations consistent through Jeffersonian-Republican philosophythe development of a strong and live independence branch of the U.S. Constitutional system

7. The acquisition of the Louisiana Territory stood for a constitutional challenge for the United claims because

Congress and also the president lacked the clean constitutional authority to boost the dimension of the nationthe United states lacked the resources to pay for the purchaseDemocratic-Republicans felt threatened by the amount of floor the acquisition includedthe Marshall Court had actually ruled the acquisition unconstitutional

8. Foreign relations preceding the battle of 1812 gift a challenge for the young United says for every the following reasons except

war in between Britain and also France influenced U.S. Cost-free tradeFrench assaults on American shipping continued despite congressional actionBritish support of the Embargo action led the brand-new England claims to grow economicallythe H.M.S. Leopard fired top top the U.S.S. Chesapeake seizing alleged british deserters

9. Which group would most likely oppose a U.S. Statements of war in 1812?

Congressional representatives from relatively new Western statesFederalists from brand-new EnglandJeffersonian republic from the SouthJeffersonian republic from the Mid-Atlantic states

10. Concerning the battle of 1812 i beg your pardon statement is most accurate?

Provisions the the contract of Ghent extended the unified States’ northern border v Canada providing the country significant territory in the good Lakes.Native american in the Northwest region made far-reaching long-term developments in getting sovereignty end their genealogical lands.Congressional to represent from the newly admitted western claims saw benefits in heralding war top top the British.British troops efficiently invaded the United states along the Atlantic Coast and also the northern border at some point losing in ~ the fight of brand-new Orleans.

11. The ax “Era of good Feelings” is misleading because

the Federalist Party remained solid in brand-new England and also the freshly admitted western statesemerging nationalism failed to capture the creative thinking of the American publicAndrew Jackson tested President Monroe’s reelection bidrising sectionalism led to arguments over the financial institution of the united States and tariffs

12. The vital industry to arise in the United states in the decades automatically after the battle of 1812 was


13. Pendant of financial nationalism believed

precedents established by the Marshall Court cultivated positive commonwealth government financial power and protected exclusive propertyJeffersonian Republicans must oppose commonwealth government funding of inner improvementsthe Market revolution would lead to irreparable sectional tensions and Civil Wara protective tariff benefited only the manufacturing sections of the nation

14. I m sorry statement best applies to slavery in the unified States during the first quarter that the nineteenth century?

The greatest populace density of slaves existed in the Mississippi Delta region.Federal prohibitions on the importation of servants were ended by 1820.Agricultural expansion increased the worth of slaves and frequency of their being traded in the residential slave trade.Decreased servant resistance resulted in a lessening of state and also local regulations.

Free response Questions

Explain the reasons and impact of the panic of 1819.Explain just how the Missouri weaken was designed to diminish boosting sectional tensions and also prevent future problems over the join of brand-new states.Explain why the Louisiana acquisition posed challenge and possibility for Jeffersonian Republicans.Explain just how the U.S. Economy readjusted in the consequences of the battle of 1812.Analyze the demographic alters in the period 1800-1830 and their influence on the growth of the united States.Analyze the means in which economic innovations and also inventions of the early to mid-nineteenth century impacted U.S. Financial development.Explain “the cult that domesticity.” just how attainable and also widespread to be this concept?

AP practice Questions

“But over there is a difficulty in this salvation which presents a handle to the malcontents amongst us though they have not yet uncovered it. Our confederation is absolutely confined to the limits established by the revolution. The general government has no powers however such together the structure has given it; and it has actually not offered it a power of holding international territory & still much less of incorporating it right into the Union. An modification of the structure seems necessary for this. In the meantime, we need to ratify & salary our money together we have actually treated for a thing beyond the constitution and also rely top top the nation to sanction an action done because that its great good without its vault authority.”

Thomas Jefferson to man Dickinson august 9, 1803

Refer come the excerpt provided.

1. The excerpt is most straight related to

ratification the the U. S. Constitutionpurchase the the Louisiana Territorypassage that the Missouri Compromiseissuance the the Monroe Doctrine

2. The sentiments Jefferson express in the excerpt show his effort to

reconcile a ideology of strict translate of the constitution with handy opportunitychallenge preferably of the can be fried Court created by judicial precedentsupport the need for a amendment American Indian policydiscount the require for a bill of Rights

3. The resolution of the instance discussed in the excerpt would certainly most straight lead come which later on constitutional question?

Could a state control interstate commerce?Did the President deserve to refuse to enforce a supreme Court decision?Who had actually the authority to manage slavery in a brand-new state?Could new states get in the Union ~ above an equal footing v older states?


This map depicts the median (average) facility of population in the United says from 1790 come 2010.

Refer to the map provided.

4. The map most plainly depicts

limited attention in southern economic developmentpreferred settlement near waterwaysthe outcomes of interior migration patternspolitical choices of landscape voters

5. Follow to the 1830 census the readjust that arisen between 1800 and 1830 best explains

the cultivation political strength of western claims to influence the sectional balance in the unified Statesthe dominance of the southerly planter course in national politicsNew England’s economic change from shipping and also trading come manufacturingthe affect of overwhelming congressional assistance for Henry Clay’s American System

6. The trend depicted in the map finest reflects i beg your pardon continuity in U.S. History?

Dominance the rural over urban locations in nationwide politicsTensions over immigrant policyImpact of transport innovationDebate end federal eco-friendly policies

Primary Sources

Louisiana acquisition (1803) A Century that Lawmaking for a new Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates 1774-1875. Https://

Missouri deteriorate 1820. Https://

Monroe doctrine 1823. Https://

U.S. Reports: Marbury v. Madison 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803). Http://

Suggested Resources

Appleby Joyce. Inheriting the Revolution: The first Generation that Americans. Cambridge MA: Harvard University press 2000.

Banner James M. Jr. To the Hartford Convention: The Federalists and also the beginnings of Party national politics in Massachusetts 1789-1815. Brand-new York: Knopf 1970.

Banning Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: The evolution of a Party Ideology. Ithaca NY: Cornell University push 1978.

Berlin Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The first Two century of enslavement in phibìc America. Cambridge MA: Harvard University press 1998.

Freeman joanne B. Affairs the Honor: national Politics in the early Republic. Brand-new Haven CT: Yale University press 2001.

Gilje Paul A. The make of the American Republic 1763-1815. Upper Saddle flow NJ: Pearson 2006.

Hatch Nathan. The Democratization that American Christianity. Brand-new Haven CT: Yale University push 1989.

Hickey Donald R. The war of 1812: A forgotten Conflict. Urbana IL: university of Illinois press 1989.

Horn James january Ellen Taylor and Peter S. Onuf eds. The change of 1800: Democracy Race and the brand-new Republic. Charlottesville VA: college of Virginia push 2002.

Howe Daniel Walker. What hath God Wrought: The transformation of America 1815-1848. Brand-new York: Oxford University push 2008.

Kukla Jon. A Wilderness so Immense: The Louisiana Purchase and also the Destiny of America. New York: Anchor 2003.

McCoy Drew. The Elusive Republic: Political economic climate in Jeffersonian America. Chapel Hill NC: university of north Carolina push 1980.

Onuf Peter S. Jefferson’s Empire: The Language the American Nationhood. Charlottesville VA: college of Virginia press 2000.

Pasley Jeffrey P. “The Tyranny the Printers”: Newspaper national politics in the beforehand Republic. Charlottesville VA: college of Virginia push 2001.

Stagg J.C.A. Mr. Madison’s War: politics Diplomacy and also Warfare in the early American Republic. Princeton NJ: Princeton University push 1983.

Taylor Alan. William Cooper’s Town: Power and Persuasion ~ above the Frontier the the beforehand American Republic. Brand-new York: Vintage 1995.

Tucker Robert W. And David C. Hendrickson. Empire that Liberty: The Statecraft of thomas Jefferson. Brand-new York: Oxford University press 1992.

Wilentz Sean. The increase of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln. New York: W.W. Norton 2005.

See more: A Reasonable Guide For Ahri, The 9 Tails Fox, A Reasonable Guide For Ahri, The Nine Tailed Fox

Wood Gordon. Empire of Liberty: A background of the at an early stage Republic 1789-1815. New York: Oxford University press 2009.