George Schuyler, "The Negro-Art Hokum," essay, The Nation, 16 June 1926
Langston Hughes, "The black Artist and the racial Mountain," essay, The Nation, 23 June 1926
E. Franklin Frazier, "Racial Self-Expression," essay in Ebony and also Topaz: A Collectanea, ed. Charles S. Johnson, national Urban League, 1927 (PDF)
Harlem and also Boley, Oklahoma, represent, in geographic terms, the separationist-integrationist stress that runs through the discourse on the place of blacks in American life (see #1: neighborhood as Place). Together we observed in the Du Bois-Locke controversy on the political role of african American writing (see design template III: PROTEST), the Harlem Renaissance, with its insistence upon developing distinctively black art from distinctively black color experience, lugged this tension into sharp focus. Because that African American artists and intellectuals, the an obstacle and flexibility of self-definition to be at stake. Just how should people define, build, and also sustain black community and also culture? have to African American artists effort to sign up with the broader American society or connect in spontaneous separation, commemorating a unique heritage? This debate, echoing today, transcends art, because that it raises basic questions around the black community. What specifies it? that is in it, and who is not? In 1926 the controversy coalesced approximately two write-ups published in The Nation. George Schuyler (1895-1977) fired the an initial shot in "The Negro-Art Hokum." Born in Providence, Rhode Island, Schuyler prospered up in Syracuse, new York. After ~ a stint in the Army, he moved to new York City, where he developed socialist leanings and began a career together a journalist, eventually becoming associate editor of the Philadelphia Courier. In time he relocated from the political left to the excessive right. He released his autobiography, Black and Conservative, in 1966. In "The Negro-Art Hokum" Schuyler says that much of what supporters of the Harlem Renaissance recognize as distinctively negro art is either based upon white models or greatly shaped by white influences. Follow to Schuyler, this is specifically what one would suppose from the American Negro, that is "just level American" ~ three hundred years of socialization in this country. Once Negro art appears to derive exclusively from african American sources, it is so specific to "a caste in a certain section the the country" that it cannot be ascribed come the Negro gyeongju as a whole. "he Aframerican is subject to the same economic and social forces that mold the actions and thoughts of white Americans," he wrote. "He is not living in a different world."In "The negro Artist and also the gyeongju Mountain," released in The Nation one week after Schuyler"s article, Langston Hughes (1902-1967) fired back. The "racial mountain" is the "urge . . . Toward whiteness," nurtured within the gyeongju by the "Negro center class," for whom "the word white concerns be unconsciously a prize of all virtues." for this reason in a feeling Hughes agrees through Schuyler, at the very least where the black middle course is concerned. That members space deeply shaped by white influences. But, Hughes asserts, over there is a mode of experience that is distinctively black, a "racial world" various from that populated by whites, and also it is found among "the low-down folk, the so-called typical element." over there the negro artist will discover "a an excellent field the unused material" to which he can bring his "racial individuality." In "Racial Self-Expression," E. Franklin Frazier (1894-1962) turned come anthropology and sociology to contextualize the 2 sides that the debate, one seek "to efface Negroid characteristics," the other to glorify "things black." Frazier i graduated from Howard University and also received one M.A. In sociology indigenous Clark University and also a Ph.D. Native the university of Chicago. From 1934 come 1959 the led the sociology department at Howard. During a differentiated career he published crucial research that challenged racial stereotypes. Frazier locates the source of the "effacement-glorification" dispute in the typical behavior of nationalistic groups. "At an initial the group attempts to lose itself in the majority group, disdaining its very own characteristics," that writes. When that fails, the team places "a brand-new valuation" on the "very exact same characteristics." he acknowledges that "group experience" deserve to be a source for imaginative inspiration and "group tradition" yet cautions versus seeking identification in "the organic inheritance that the race," which "those who stand because that a unique culture among the Negroes" seem to it is in doing. While that praises the worth of community, he continues to be dubious that it once it outcomes in cultural isolation. (10 pages.)Discussion questions
how does Schuyler specify race? just how does Hughes? Frazier? how does Schuyler specify the black community? how does Hughes? Frazier? just how does Schuyler manage the problem of racial stereotyping? just how does Hughes? What room the potential costs and benefits that romanticizing the "low-down folks, the so-called usual element"? What walk "The black Artist and the gyeongju Mountain" suggest about the relationship between the black community and also class? according to "Racial Self-Expression," what renders the "Negro"s position" distinct from other nationalistic teams in the unified States? What are the artist"s duties both in forming and also preserving community? What is the duty of the intellectual? Both Hughes and also Frazier allude to a generational schism. What are these differing viewpoints, and what accounts because that this conflict? Arguably, Hughes sounds far an ext celebratory compared to Schuyler"s mocking and also Frazier"s cautionary attitude. Why? how would you explain their differences in tone?
How has actually the afri American community characterized itself?
How has the afri American community functioned in the stays of that is members?
How have transforming notions of afri American identity affected definitions of afri American community?
Supplemental SitesHarlem Renaissance: A quick Introduction, timeline and also links, in PAL: Perspectives in American Literature, from Paul P. Reuben, California State University, StanislausHarlem Renaissance: Pivotal duration in the advancement of Afro-American Culture, overview and also teaching resources, by Caroline Jackson, Yale-New Haven teachers InstituteGeorge Schuyler, bibliography and biography, in PAL: Perspectives in American Literature, from Paul P. Reuben, California State University, StanislausLangston Hughes, biography and links, indigenous the Race and also Pedagogy Project, university of California-Santa BarbaraE. Franklin Frazier, biography and bibliography, native Howard university Social work-related Library
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Images: (1) Langston Hughes, 29 Feb. 1936; George Schuyler, 2 July 1941; photographs by Carl valve Vechten. Courtesy the the Library the Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Carl valve Vechten Collection, lot of 12735, #540 and #1007. (2) E.Franklin Frazier, n.d., permission pending native the Schomburg center for research study in black color Culture, brand-new York publicly Library.
COMMUNITY1. Community as location 2. Neighborhood on movie 3. Community & Self-Help4. Image, neighborhood 1939 5. Gyeongju as ar 6. Community & the folk 7. Ar & memory 8. Community & culture 9. Image, neighborhood 1968 10.