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Weight-Loss Products, Programs, and Diets – 9.363
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by L. Bellows and R. Moore* (10/13)

Quick Facts…

The most effective means to lose weight and also maintain weight-loss with time is to screen calorie intake, follow a healthy balanced diet, and also be physical active.Effective weight-loss strategies need to encourage reality goals and also permanent healthy changes in eat habits.Many diet products and programs market a quick short-term fix, yet there is no “magic bullet” because that weight-loss.When investigating weightloss products or program beware the high costs, press to purchase special foods or pills, and fraudulent claims.

You are watching: A good way to help dieters to solve problems and increase motivation is to teach them to:

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Approximately 70% of americans over 20 years of period meet the criteria for being overweight or obese. Excess body fat indigenous an unhealthy diet and lack of practice can additionally increase the threat for health difficulties such as hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes. According to the USDA diet Guidelines because that Americans, healthy keys come weight administration include: security calorie and fat intake, continuing to be active, and also maintaining a healthy and balanced lifestyle.

Certain dieting and also weight-loss resources may encompass over-the-counter products, commercial programs, and diets. Short-lived weight-loss indigenous a low calorie intake is feasible with countless of these methods. However, many weight-loss methods fail to contribute to healthy and balanced long-term weight maintenance, though some may administer helpful guidance regarding a healthy diet, positive way of living changes, and physical activity. The following information compares the strengths and weaknesses the several popular weight-loss products, programs, and also diets, and also discusses alternatives to dieting that incorporate healthy recommendations for reliable weight-loss and also long-term weight maintenance.

Weight-Loss Products

Weight-loss commodities may be offered in prescription or over-the-counter form- and also may incorporate pills, supplements, beverages, or medication. Numerous of these substances may have serious side-effects and also often execute not occupational for irreversible weight-loss. In the past decade, the Food and also Drug management (FDA) has actually banned countless weight-loss products including the appetite suppressant PPA (phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride), which have the right to increase the risk of stroke. Additionally, over-the-counter pills that contain the drug ephedra have been banned and also are currently illegal because of serious side-effects that encompass dizziness, enhanced blood pressure and heart rate, chest pain, heart attack, stroke, seizure, and even death. Essentially, many weight-loss assets contain drugs and also other ingredient that could potentially to lead to adverse sideeffects that ultimately place the customer at threat for serious health consequences.

Another product intended because that weightloss is powdered beverage formulas or shakes- often mixed through a glass the milk and also substituted for one or much more meals. Those that consume this beverages may lose weight initially, despite it is commonly regained as soon as the beverages room discontinued. By relying ~ above shakes instead of whole foods, dieters follow man-made dieting methods and also avoid learning exactly how to incorporate healthy and balanced food options into their lives.

Weight-Loss Programs

Weight-loss programs room usually operation by a commercial organization or company that gives weight-loss guidance. These programs might be operation by a one individual, a gym, or a nationwide service. They may also sell products to accompany their routine which may include exercise equipment, exercise DVDs, or food and beverage items. Ideally, an reliable weight-loss regime should encompass guidance in preserving a healthy and balanced weight after the weight-loss phase is over. The program should teach an abilities that assist improve dietary habits, rise physical activity, and also help readjust lifestyle habits- v an ultimate score of long-term weight maintenance.

Commercial weight-loss programs such together Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig, NutriSystem and also Diet Center, usually offer a 1,000 to 1,500 calorie diet and individual or team counseling. Though numerous individuals uncover long-term success v these programs, part participants still battle with healthy weight-maintenance. In the past, the Federal trade Commission (FTC) has actually brought action against several of these companies, complicated their load loss and maintenance claims.

Refer come a medical experienced for recommendations concerning weight lose programs obtainable in her community.

Weight-Loss Diets

The ax “diet” simply refers come food and drink the is regularly provided or consumed. However, that can likewise refer to eating or drink sparingly or follow to a prescribed collection of rules. A diet may be considered healthy or unhealthy, often relying on individual needs. An unhealthy diet is frequently referred to as a fad diet, i beg your pardon is design to assist one shed weight and also is temporarily popular. The decision to follow a fad diet is often made there is no the support or reference of a clinical professional, and also considered an unhealthy practice. An example of a fad diet can include references that severely restrict calorie or even entire food groups in an unhealthy way. Cleanses, juice diets, and also detoxification diets space all instances of fad diets. Although plenty of fad diet promise fast weight loss, most are not recommended for permanent use and do not assistance a healthful and balanced diet. Though countless individuals may shed weight initially, it is often easily regained. In ~ two-year follow-ups, research study demonstrates a really low success price for numerous of this diets. In fact, just 5% the the people who go on a diet yearly keep turn off the weight the they lose.

In contrast, highly efficient weight-loss methods involve complying with a healthy eating pattern or lifestyle, through a goal of permanent weight maintenance and also lowered hazard for chronic disease. For example, a healthy eating pattern recognized as the DASH eat Plan (similar come the 2010 Dietary recommendations for Americans) does no involve calorie restriction. Instead, it motivates the consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains, low-fat dairy product products, and also lean meat.

Tips for picking a Weight-Loss Product, Program, or Diet

Not all weight-loss products, programs, and diets are harmful or unhealthy. Prior to investing in any of this items or services, ensure that the complying with criteria room met:

It is considered safe, and also provides every one of the recommended day-to-day allowances (RDAs) for vitamins, minerals, and also macronutrients.It does not advise consuming much less than 1,200 calories per day. Consult a medical expert who deserve to recommend an individualized everyday calorie intake for sure for load loss.Slow, steady weight loss is emphasized, about 1-2 pounds weight loss every week.There is no list of forbidden, or “bad” foods.Hunger is minimized.Weight maintenance guidelines and a follow-up routine are provided.Balanced food choices from every food teams are emphasized, as well as sensible section sizes and physical activity.There is no promotion of specially formulated foodstuffs or vitamin supplements, specifically if they are not cost-effective and not valuable for longterm use.Information worrying the prices for membership, weekly fees, and also counseling, is provided.Those running the program have actually the proper credentials (Registered Dietitians, medical Doctors, or other nutrition and exercise professionals).Information concerning the wellness risks and program side-effects is provided.Establishing lifelong healthy actions is emphasized.The regimen fits into one’s lifestyle.

Strategies for efficient Weight-Loss and also Health weigh Maintenance

Balance Caloric intake with power Expenditure

Calorie needs vary from human being to person. Components such together age, gender, human body size and also composition, physical condition, and task level, every play a role in determining individual caloric requirements.

The number of calories forced by one’s body throughout the work to perform involuntary, crucial tasks such as breathing, producing body heat, preserving heart function, and sending messages to and also from the brain, is referred to as the basal metabolic price or BMR. A who BMR in reality represents around 60% that the body’s daily power needs. Approximately 30% of the body daily energy needs is provided for movement, and can include an easy tasks such together walking to acquire the mail, urgently laundry, or washing the dishes. The remaining 10% of the body’s energy requirement is used to digest food and also absorb the nutrients from food. To calculation your daily calorie requirements, visit the website ChooseMyPlate.

To preserve weight, the variety of calories consumed should equal the number of calories the body burns. Because that those make the efforts to lose weight, the number of calories consumed should be fewer 보다 the number melted each day. The most effective means to attain weight-loss is come cut earlier on calories by to decrease food intake, while boosting physical activity.

Foods come Increase

An important component of effective weight-loss and also weight maintain is consisting of fruits and vegetables, whole-grains, and fat-free dairy products, for a healthful diet.

Whole-grains are also an important component the a healthy and balanced diet, and contain high level of necessary nutrients and also dietary fiber.Low-fat or fat-free dairy commodities such as milk, yogurt, and cheese, will carry out adequate nutrients along with less calorie from fat.

Foods to Decrease

An necessary component of effective weight-loss and weight maintenance is consisting of fruits and vegetables, wholegrains, and fat-free dairy product products, for a healthful diet.

Strategies to change Eating Behaviors

The adhering to behavior adjust techniques can aid alter negative eating habits:

Record unhealthy eating behavior in stimulate to identify places, emotions, or tasks that may cause inappropriate eating.To adjust unhealthy habits, make basic changes such as eating meals away from the tv or computer. Once feeling stressed, choose to walk for a go or call a friend rather of eating unhealthy foods.Pay attention to part size as soon as cutting ago on the variety of calories consumed. Selecting sensible portions is an important factor in regulating calorie intake and also managing weight.

Physical Activity

Those who transform their eat habits and also stay physically active are the many successful at losing weight and also maintaining weight-loss. Physical activity burns calories, raises metabolism, and also helps with body fat loss. Staying active also promotes a sense of well-being, to reduce stress, and also has advantageous effects ~ above HDL “good” cholesterol.

Find an task that is enjoyable. If additional health problems likewise accompany overweight or obesity, consult with a clinical professional before beginning an practice program. Start slowly, and also then work up come at least three to five 30 minute sessions of moderate exercise per week, or three to 5 15 minute sessions that vigorous exercise per week. Strengthening practice such together sit-ups or weight lifting should likewise be incorporated two days every week.

Examples of popular Diet Books

Dr. Atkins’ new Diet Revolution2009—Robert C. Atkins, M.D. Extr books: Atkins because that Life

Characteristics: High protein, high fat, and very low carbohydrate. Claims to aid those through food intolerances or allergies, love disease, diabetes, and also yeast infections. Megavitamin/mineral supplements recommended daily.Strengths: load loss will likely result due to the low calorie eat plan. Triglyceride levels might decrease early out to limited carbohydrate intake. High fat intake offers satiety because that a long period of time.Weaknesses: that is nutritionally unbalanced, restrictive, and permits no bread, pasta, or cereal, and extremely low in fruits and also vegetables. Ketoacidosis (the malfunction of fat and also protein) is encouraged, which might be harmful for part individuals.Comments: Does no teach an excellent eating habits, and also may be perhaps dangerous. Claims are not nutritionally sound and also not intended for maintain of weight loss. Initial load loss is greatly water weight.

The Beck Diet Solution: Train your brain to think favor a slim person2007—Judith S. Beck

Characteristics: six week setup based ~ above behavior readjust through cognitive therapy. Walk not incorporate a diet plan, though a healthy diet and also consult with a dietitian is encouraged.Strengths: it is realistic, and does not mean behavior readjust overnight. Provides an abilities to successfully readjust thoughts and also behaviors concerning food.Weaknesses: A significant time commitment, and a diet plan or references for what one should or shouldn’t eat space not provided.Comments: ideal for any individual spring to shed weight. Concentrates on the tools necessary to adjust thinking patterns and maintain a healthy and balanced weight transparent life.

Eat to Live: The remarkable Nutrient-Rich program for Fast and also Sustained weight Loss2011—Joel Fuhrman, M.D.

Characteristics: encourages nutrient dense foods and also consuming foods with a higher ratio of nutrients to calories. 2 stages: a “6 mainly plan” with specific guidelines for foodstuffs to consume, and also a “life plan” slightly much less structured focusing on keeping the diet end time.Strengths: concentrates on health and wellness rather than weight ns in order to maintain long-term health.Weaknesses: The “6 main plan” is restrictive- eliminating all dairy and animal products, and also no in-between meal snacking. Physical activity is no addressed.Comments: load loss will result, mostly due to reduced calorie consumption. Entirety food groups are eliminated, and also may result in insufficient nutrient intake.

The GenoType Diet: adjust Your genetic Destiny2007—Peter D’Adamo v Catherine Whitney

Characteristics: specific dietary and exercise references are adhered to according come one’s “GenoType.” Diet based upon the science of epigenetics (the interaction in between one’s genetics and environment).Strengths: Personalized diet, and includes exercises. Provides information on serving dimension and portion sizes. Diet is balanced and also full that variety.Weaknesses: The long term efficiency of this diet is largely unknown. Preparing meals might be difficult, particularly if each family member belongs to a various “GenoType.”Comments: straightforward to follow, and also brings self-awareness of food consumed. Supplements and other commodities sold by this author should be provided with caution.

The brand-new Abs Diet- The 6 Week setup to Flatten her Stomach and also Keep You lean for Life2010—David Zinczenko through Ted Spiker

Characteristics: 3 meals and 3 snacks same spaced throughout the day, planned roughly the “Abs Diet strength 12 Food Groups” (nuts, beans, eggs, lean meats, whole-grains, and also berries). Refined carbohydrates are restricted as well together alcoholic beverages.Strengths: Weight-loss outcomes are likely because the arrangement is flexible through no significant restrictions, and tiny extreme or controversial components. Recipes, a nutrition guide, and an exercise program, room included.Weaknesses: No far-ranging weaknesses, though both authors absence formal specialization in nutrition.Comments: Realistic and also practical for the median individual. Recommended foods items are easy to find and also affordable. Short-term and also long-term load loss is likely.

The Paleo Diet2010—Loren Cordain, Ph.D

Characteristics: genealogical dietary sample (2.5 million years ago), thought to reduce the threat for chronic an illness and result in weight loss. Has unlimited lean meats, fish, fruits, and also non-starchy vegetables. Protect against cereals, legumes, dairy products, and also processed foods.Strengths: proposal high input of fruit and also vegetables and reduced intake of saturation fat. Argues eating under processed foods.Weaknesses: disclosure avoidance the cereals, legumes, and also dairy products, i beg your pardon may result in inadequacy of essential vitamins, minerals, and also food constituents.Comments: not a realistic method for many, indigenous a nutritional and also environmental standpoint.

The Sonoma Diet2005—Dr. Connie Guttersen, R.D., Ph.D

Characteristics: three stages, or “waves,” with particular foods and part sizes that must be consumed for each “wave.”Strengths: Emphasizes whole grains, vegetables, nutrient dense foods, and low sugar diet. Permanent weight lose is emphasized through actions modification.Weaknesses: None.Comments: provides healthy load loss through low calorie yet nutrient-dense foods. Discusses the prominence of exercise.

South beach Diet2005—Arthur Agatston, M.D

Characteristics: based upon glycemic index, promotes switching to “good carbs” to manage cravings and also prevent insulin resistance. Recommends “good fats” for heart disease prevention and also to manage hunger pangs.Strengths: Emphasizes whole-grains, legumes, low-fat dairy, vegetables, and heart-healthy fats.Weaknesses: Unnecessarily restricts “high glycemic index” fruits and also vegetables such together carrots, bananas, pineapple, and also other fruits. Challenging to maintain long term.Comments: Diet is low in calories, i m sorry is most most likely responsible for weight-loss. Diet setup dichotomizes foodstuffs into “good” and also “bad.”

YOU: on A Diet-The Owner’s hands-on for waist Management2009—Mehmet C. Oz M.D. And Michael F. Roizen M.D.

Characteristics: concentrates on regulating waistline, fairly than weight. Claims the relationship in between chemicals and hormones that affect hunger, and also those signaling satiety, space the tricks to finishing yo-yo dieting. Lists foods and supplements the fight fat, to decrease appetite, and combat inflammation. Likewise discusses current alternatives for drugs and weight-loss surgery.Strengths: provides no ‘magic bullet’ claims. Concentrates on proper food choices, portion control, and exercise.Weaknesses: some question around factual accuracy (i.e. Female human body produces progestin). Part advice is not necessarily supported by peer reviewed research study (i.e. Eat at night makes you fat). Part readers are turned turn off by “dumbed down” language and also “childish” cartoons provided throughout the book.Comments: A famous diet book, partly as result of the author’s high file in the media. Most advice is sound, but exercise and menu recommendations may be unrealistic for many readers.

Eat This not That: Thousands of basic Food Swaps That deserve to Save girlfriend 10, 20, 30 Pounds-or More!2007—David Zinczencko with Matt Goulding

Characteristics: A guide to making more healthful food options when dining the end at restaurants.Strengths: The guide is straightforward to use and also simple. It helps one make much more healthful selections when dining out, and exposes drawbacks come meals that may seem healthful (i.e. High fat fish filet at Burger King, or high sodium salmon teriyaki in ~ Macaroni Grill). The is easy to carry roughly for quick reference.Weaknesses: some suggestions may be confusing or inconsistent for many readers.Comments: Though cooking meals at residence is practically always much more healthful than eating out, this overview serves as a helpful source for make healthy choices when dining out .

Common Weight-Loss Programs

Diet Center (www.dietcenter.com)

Characteristics: regular weigh-ins and individual counseling. Many diet to plan available, catered come both women and also men.Strengths: motivates exercise. Strong support in psychological aspects of weight-loss.Weaknesses: hefty reliance on supplements.Comments: No contract required. Offers an in-person or online program option.

Jenny Craig weight Loss Clinic (www.jennycraig.com)

Characteristics: Weekly classes and also individual counseling sessions room available. Both pre-portioned foods and grocery store foodstuffs are offered in the program. Lifestyle management, motivation, and nutritional information, are additionally provided.Strengths: Emphasizes actions education and practical eat skills. Meant weight lose 1 to 2 lbs/week. Practice is encouraged.Weaknesses: The food sold by Jenny Craig can be high value (though grocery store store foods are also encouraged). The plan does not think about those v food allergies.Comments: based upon sound weight-loss principles, focuses on weight management with no wild insurance claims or promises. Provides an in-person or online regimen option.

NutriSystem (www.nutrisystem.com)

Characteristics: select a plan and also food choices for 28 job (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and dessert because that each day). Food is ceded to you. Follow the enjoy the meal planner detailed while eating the ceded food and also selected grocery store items. Track load loss and access counselors and educational devices online.Strengths: No clues or calorie counting required. Food is pre-portioned. Social support, nutrition education, and exercise tips easily accessible online.Weaknesses: The food shipment is specific for NutriSystem, which may be expensive and does no teach one how to make food choices outside that the program. Counseling is not provided by a Registered Dietitian.Comments: uses a money-back guarantee. Center-based firm has been changed with one online alternative only.

Overeaters Anonymous (www.oa.org)

Characteristics: group meetings. Twelve-step program encounters physical, spiritual and emotional aspects of overeating. No “diets,” weigh-ins or lectures top top food and weight. Main purpose is to protect against compulsive eating.Strengths: encouraged to consult qualified specialists if interested in learning around nutrition or seeking professional advice. Provide an excellent support structure.Weaknesses: party eating problems do not apply to everyone.Comments: No fees, voluntarily contributions. Just membership necessity is a desire to avoid compulsive eating. Online “meetings” available as well.

TOPS (Take turn off Pounds Sensibly) (www.tops.org)

Characteristics: Diet based upon a traditional diet of regular foods. Team meetings because that weekly weigh-ins, education and also support. Teams organized locally, sport possible.Strengths: Nutritionally sound diet. Emphasizes slow, secure weight loss. Urges camaraderie because that support.Comments: dues assessed every year. Much less commercial 보다 Weight Watchers. Walk not sell food products or accept heralding from commercial companies. Nonprofit and noncommercial. Virtual membership is offered as well.

Weight Watchers (www.weightwatchers.com)

Characteristics: team meetings for education and support. Separation, personal, instance counseling available. Integrates food, behavior, social support, and exercise. Emphasis on meal planning. Calories no counted daily. Lifestyle fit and also convenience is paramount. Load Watchers food available, no required. Points arrangement gives points to food based on calories, fat, and fiber. Each human being receives a daily suggest allotment based upon current weight. Plan to stay within everyday allotment.Strengths: Nutritionally balanced. Emphasizes slow, secure weight loss. Teaches how to preserve ideal weight. Personal daily practice plan. No great or negative foods. Emphasis on sustainable, healthy and balanced lifestyle.Comments: life time membership by preserving weight in ~ 2 pounds that goal load for 6 weeks. Has a meeting-based or online option.

Additional Resources

For more information ~ above a healthy and balanced diet, describe the websites:

References

Centers for condition Control and Prevention (CDC). Obesity and also Overweight. Accessible at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/overwt.htm last accessed on might 10, 2013.

Saper, RB, Eisenberg, DM, Phillips, RS. Common dietary Supplements for load Loss. To be Fam Phys. 70:1731-8, 2004.

Tufts University. Distinct Supplement come the Tufts University health and wellness & Nutrition Letter. October 2007.

U.S. Food and also Drug management Agency. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) information Page. 2005. Http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/ppa/default.htm accessed December 10, 2008.

See more: ' He Is Speaking The Language Of Gods Meme Generator, He Is Speaking The Language Of Gods

U.S. Food and also Drug administration Agency. Sales the Supplements include Ephedrine Alkaloids (Ephedra) Prohibited. 2007. Http://www.fda.gov/oc/initiatives/ephedra/february2004/ accessed December 10, 2008.

*L. Bellows, Colorado State University digitalrecordersreview.org food and also nutrition specialist and assistant professor; R. Moore, graduate student. 12/98. Modification 10/13.